Evol Ecol Res 3: 51-74 (2001)     Full PDF if your library subscribes.

Co-evolution of nuptial gift and female multiple mating resulting in diverse breeding systems

Michio Kondoh

Centre for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsuka, Hirano-cho, Kamitanakami, Otsu, Shiga 520-2113, Japan

e-mail: kondoh@ecology.kyoto-u.ac.jp


To show how diverse breeding systems, including polyandry, evolve in insects, I present a model of co-evolution between nuptial gift size and female multiple mating. I assume that males and females determine their strategy (amount of nuptial gift and frequency of mating, respectively) according to the strategy adopted by the other sex. The model demonstrates that co-evolution leads to diverse breeding systems: systems with both nuptial gift and female multiple mating, systems with nuptial gift only and systems with neither nuptial gift nor female multiple mating. The equilibrium breeding system is determined based on the sex ratio, efficiency of nuptial gift on the improvement of offspring survivorship, cost of nuptial gift production and cost of additional mating.

Keywords: breeding system, co-evolution, conflict resolution, nuptial gift, polyandry.

IF you are connected using the IP of a subscribing institution (library, laboratory, etc.)
or through its VPN.


        © 2001 Michio Kondoh. All EER articles are copyrighted by their authors. All authors endorse, permit and license Evolutionary Ecology Ltd. to grant its subscribing institutions/libraries the copying privileges specified below without additional consideration or payment to them or to Evolutionary Ecology, Ltd. These endorsements, in writing, are on file in the office of Evolutionary Ecology, Ltd. Consult authors for permission to use any portion of their work in derivative works, compilations or to distribute their work in any commercial manner.

       Subscribing institutions/libraries may grant individuals the privilege of making a single copy of an EER article for non-commercial educational or non-commercial research purposes. Subscribing institutions/libraries may also use articles for non-commercial educational purposes by making any number of copies for course packs or course reserve collections. Subscribing institutions/libraries may also loan single copies of articles to non-commercial libraries for educational purposes.

       All copies of abstracts and articles must preserve their copyright notice without modification.