Evol Ecol Res 14: 1015-1038 (2012)     Full PDF if your library subscribes.

Population differentiation in floral characters of Datura inoxia Mill.

Vania Jiménez-Lobato1,2 and Juan Núñez-Farfán1

1Laboratorio de Genética Ecológica y Evolución, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, México 04510, Distrito Federal, México and  2Posgrado en Ecología, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Xalapa, Veracruz, México

Correspondence: J. Núñez-Farfán, Laboratorio de Genética Ecológica y Evolución, Departamento de Ecología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-275, Distrito Federal 04510, México. E-mail: farfan@unam.mx


Question: Is differentiation in single and correlated floral traits among populations of Datura inoxia the result of contrasting natural selection?

Hypothesis: The pattern and structure of phenotypic variance–covariance matrices of putative adaptive traits differ from those produced by random processes. Population differentiation in quantitative floral traits (QST) of D. inoxia exceeds the magnitude of population differentiation in neutral characters (FST), supporting a selection-driven differentiation scenario.

Organism: Datura inoxia Mill. (Solanaceae).

Field sites: Six natural populations in Mexico (latitudinal range: 18°48′N to 26°41′N).

Methods: Using different methods (Mantel and modified Mantel tests, jackknife MANOVA, Flury’s method, and QSTFST of Whitlock and Guillaume), we contrasted the pattern of phenotypic variance–covariance matrices as well as the magnitude of population differentiation in seven quantitative floral traits, against population structure of D. inoxia in neutral loci (molecular markers). We also contrasted floral characters measures and integration indices with local inbreeding values (FIS) for each population to contrast selection mediated by pollinators and selection of selfing.

Conclusions: Datura inoxia populations are genetically structured in both quantitative traits and neutral loci but population differentiation in four of seven floral traits is greater than expected by random differentiation. The strong correlations in characters related to attraction of pollinators and pollen deposition/removal are in agreement with a pattern expected for the adaptive evolution of funnel-shaped corollas in outcrossing species.

Keywords: Datura inoxia, floral evolution, Flury’s method, FST, outcrossing, phenotypic differentiation, phenotypic integration, population genetic structure, QST, reproductive assurance, selfing, variance–covariance matrix.

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