Evol Ecol Res 18: 539-554 (2017)     Full PDF if your library subscribes.

Evolution of reproductive effort in mud turtles (Kinosternidae): the role of environmental predictability

Rodrigo Macip-Ríos1, Rebeca N. Ontiveros2, Anahí T. Sánchez-León2 and G. Casas-Andreu3

1Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia, Michoacán, México,  2Escuela de Biología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, México and  3Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City, México

Correspondence: R. Macip-Ríos, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia. Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, México.
e-mail: rmacip@enesmorelia.unam.mx

ABSTRACT

Question: Does environmental unpredictability drive the evolution of reproductive effort?

Data incorporated: We used life-history data from 31 kinosternid turtles. We tested relationships using the phylogenies of Iverson et al. (2013) and Spinks et al. (2014).

Methods: Phylogenetically uncorrected: We ran correlations between life-history traits and historic climatic variation. We used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare traits between temperate and tropical taxa. Phylogenetically corrected: We calculated independent contrasts and used the contrasts in correlations of life-history traits with historic climatic variation. To compare life-history traits between temperate and tropical taxa, we ran phylogenetic ANCOVAs and tested for phylogenetic signal.

Conclusions: Reproductive effort decreases with climatic variation. Temperate species evolved smaller clutches with large eggs and high reproductive effort. Tropical species from Mexico evolved larger clutches with medium-sized eggs and low reproductive effort.

Keywords: clutch size, egg size, phylogenetic comparative methods, relative clutch mass, temporal environmental variation.

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