Evol Ecol Res 19: 29-41 (2018)     Full PDF if your library subscribes.

Weak but parallel divergence between kōaro (Galaxias brevipinnis)
from adjacent lake and stream habitats

Travis Ingram1 and Stephanie M. Bennington2

1Department of Zoology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand and 2Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

Correspondence: T. Ingram, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. email: travis.ingram@otago.ac.nz


Background: Fish in New Zealand and elsewhere in the temperate Southern Hemisphere rarely show the adaptive divergence in sympatry or parapatry seen elsewhere in the world.

Hypothesis: Galaxiid fish in high-elevation lakes will show parallel morphological shifts across six lake–stream ecotones, possibly accompanied by genetic divergence.

Organism: Kōaro, the climbing galaxias, which is often the sole fish species in New Zealand lakes that lack introduced trout.

Methods: Geometric morphometric analyses of photos taken of live fish collected from lakes and streams to measure the extent and direction of body shape divergence; microsatellite genotyping to measure genetic differentiation.

Results: Kōaro show weak or no genetic differentiation between adjacent lake and stream habitats, but do show generally parallel shifts in body shape between lakes and streams.

Keywords: diadromy, Galaxias brevipinnis, parapatric speciation, phenotypic change vector analysis, phenotypic plasticity.

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